My Formula For Pricing Real Estate Photography

April 5th, 2008

I get a bunch of questions from real estate photographers just starting out asking for a way to decide what to charge. I think I’ve come up with a formula. It is:

Home Shoot Price = 1.7 x Furnace Repair Price

First of all when I say basic shoot, I mean a photo shoot that produces 15 photos of an average size home (around 2000 to 2500 SF… one you can shoot in 1 hour). Added services, bigger homes are assumed to be add-ons.

Here’s how it works. You call your local furnace service company (preferably a company that is well established and been in business for a long while) and ask how much it will cost for them to come give your furnace it’s regular yearly service. This service typically consists of driving to your home, and spending about 30 minutes cleaning the gas jets, examining the heat-exchanger etc. My data is with gas furnaces, this could vary for oil, stream or other type heating systems. The idea is that furnace repair takes a similar level of technical expertise as a photographer… it’s technical, takes some special training and requires some specialized equipment and it takes a trip to the home. But in the two cases I tested, it doesn’t take as long as shooting a home. I assume that to process a shoot it takes 1 hour post processing for each hour on site. This is what the 1.7 multiplier is for.

My theory is that a furnace company that’s been in business for a while has figured out exactly what it costs them to travel to any location in their coverage area and what it cost to pay a relatively technical person to do 30 minutes work. If they didn’t have this figured out correctly they wouldn’t be in business. So they’ve done most of the work for you, all you have to do is apply a multiplier to adjust for the fact that you are going to spend 2 hours instead of 30 minutes.

I’ve done this calculation for my home in Snoqualmie, WA (Seattle area- 15 min east of Issaquah) and my home in Salem, OR (1 hour south of Portland) and it comes out as follows:

  • Seattle area: FRP=$130 so HSP=$221 rounded to $220
  • Salem area: FRP=$60 so HSP=$102 rounded to $100

To me these numbers are plausible. So what do you think? Does this formula work in your area?

Update Jan 2012: If you are interested in real estate shoot pricing you should also read this related and more recent post.

80 Responses to “My Formula For Pricing Real Estate Photography”

  • […] Original post by larry […]

  • It’s a little obscure, but I suppose I see your logic. If the numbers fit within your cost of doing business calculations, then sure, go for it.

  • Interesting theory. I’ll investigate my local area and see what numbers I come up with.
    But, I like to round up instead of down. ;)

  • I was just doing the same thing this week! I usually charge a flat rate and work with many different Realtors at many levels – but I though I’d try something different as I do hear some clients moan about how much they spend on marketing (as I meet them in their new BMW’s) so I thought I’d use the “Average Realtors Commission” (ARC) as a starting point.
    I find your comparison…interesting. I’m aiming a little higher but I understand your thinking, a lot. I use to use the “carpenter comparison” as I was a carpenter for 3 years – most guys make around $300/day, the hacks, less. Painters price about $200/room with materials, and anybody can paint a wall. Plumbers get $90/hr, more or less and I know some rich plumbers!

    I usually price around $250 for anything given my current equipment and lighting (and my tripod just took it’s “last stand..”), and a website is $100-150 more.

    Here’s my new pricing-theory math:

    Home price – $500,000
    Realtors Commission – 6 % or $30,000
    1% of Realtors Commission – $300
    .05% of ARC – $150

    I just shot a $1.7M 5000′ for a new client and I want her business as she works in a really upscale neighborhood. I charged her $295 for 24 photos and I’m giving her a website to look at for a month. That should have been $510 for photography only at 1% of her 3% gross commission – I assume its 3% rather than 6% at $1.7M?

    Six percent of $1.7M is $102,000..seems a lot, I wouldn’t pay that as a seller, but I simply do not know where the break is, I mean 6% of a $5M house is $300,000 and if I’m shooting that I want $1-2000 for AD quality photos, for sure.

    The average sub $1M prop Realtor takes home what, about 65-75% after marketing costs, expenses, fees, taxes? Larry what does your Realtor wife charge for a commission for $1M and up props?

    * That would be a great thread / chart – what Realtors actually spend and earn with a list-item of all expenses! Anyone???

    Dale Charles
    compago.net

  • hi dale, what state and city do you live/work?

  • hi dale, what state and city do you live/work?
    i think that might play a role in your fees

  • @Dale – It’s virtually impossible these days to generalize about how much Realtor commissions are. The standard until the last few years was the seller payed a total of 6% to sell their home. 3% went to the buyer’s agent and 3% went to the listing agent. Because 3% becomes so obscene as the sale price gets over $1M the commissions have always been more negotiable with higher-end listings.

    In the last few years commissions have become much more negotiable. Some agents do it for 1% some for 2% what ever they choose. It’s totally negotiable between the agent and the seller. The large brokers try to discourage discounting but in fact they don’t stop it. Companies like zillow.com and redfin.com are putting pressure on Realtors commissions (at least in the NW and I think it’s happening all over).

    For these reasons, I don’t think it makes sense to try to base photography prices on the listing agents commissions.

  • Larry, I love that formula. I’ll look into it in this area and see if it holds up!

    @ Dale — the trouble with your approach is that no realtor I’ve ever met or heard of gets a 6% commission. At best, the 6% is split between the selling agent and the buyer’s agent, and that’s before any discounting takes place, which in the current highly competitive market is happening more and more, I think. So figure on something between 2% – 3% as the upper end of the gross for the agents. Still a considerable sum, but you also have to remember that they may or may not get anything at all, depending on whether they can actually sell the place before the listing agreement expires – again a common experience in this market.

  • Fred – I work from Sacramento to San Francisco…

    Thanks for the heads up Larry. Luckily my approach is NOT the 1% of 6% theory I was crunching this week, as I wrote before I always charge $2-300 for any $500K-1M listing.

    Strangely I advertise “Photography starts at $65..” on my website and no-one asks for that rate, I am finding many average Realtors sadly have Rebel Xti’s or D40’s and just go take snapshots so I really dont bother with them anymore although I’ll shoot any prop if I’m not busy!

    It doesn’t matter what the Realtors commission is, my rates will always vary as I never turn down work. I always negotiate anyways to get the client at any level. I tried the “First shoot free” approach someone wrote about on this board a while back and I did not get one taker!

    A month ago I drove 102 miles for a cheapo shoot but got to drive through some Norcal vineyards so the experience was righteous, and the cheapo Realtor keeps giving me work. Plus the client’s house was cool, and an interesting person for sure.

    Question – what’s the best tripod under $300???

  • Scott Hargis –

    really like your strobism…do you use any diffusers on your Flashes – or umbrellas? How long does it take for you to set up 5 Flashes and get the right placement?

    Thanks for the inspiration.

  • Hi Larry,
    I’m learning so much from your blog and your talented contributors but I had to check the date of your post twice to see if it was dated April 1st. I’ve heard a lot of pricing strategies over my 38 years in photojournalism…but I’ve never even considered your furnace repair schema.
    Let me suggest – humbly as a newcomer to REP – that there are several options that may assist any photographer in determining a baseline Cost of Doing Business (CoDB).
    One of my professional associations , NPPA- The National Press Photographers Association, has a CoDB calculator that can be found at http://nppa.org/professional_development/business_practices/cdb/cdbcalc.cfm (You may have to copy and paste the link into your browser url window).
    This interactive asset may give the REP a good idea of the financial realities that impact us all no matter which specialty you work in.
    Thanks again for your efforts Larry…now I gotta go check my furnace filter…

    Ken Hawkins
    http://www.kenhawkins.com

  • @Dale,

    I have a Bogen Manfrotto 3021N Tripod ($175) and a Manfrotto Pan & Tilt HD Blk Head ($60) and I love it. They have all different kinds of heads for that tripod. It is sturdy, light (relative) easy to use and easy and fast to adjust. They have a newer version of the same tripod that allows you to take the center adjustment pole and remove it and use it horizontally, kool. Not sure of the model number but if you go to the Bogen site you can most likely find it.

    @Larry,

    I too will take a look at that pricing scenario in my area. Interesting concept.

    Cheers!
    Gar

  • I am a realtor in Utah. I’d like to clarify some things about commissions. First, 6 percent is the standard amount a seller would pay to sell their home. However, as has been said earlier, that is split between the seller’s agent and the buyer’s agent 50/50. But this is not the end. The broker for the agent often gets a cut of that. For example: at Prudential I currently get 80 percent of the three percent, and from that I pay a transaction coordinator and for marketing materials bringing my net income to about 78 percent. So, on a 500K home my broker gets $15K and at 80 percent I would net $12K before my expenses.

    As for calculating what to charge for a photo shoot, I would compare what Obeo or Circle Pix charges and go from there (keep in mind these rank amatuers are the “in and out” types that will finish a job without extra lighting in about 30 minutes – and it shows in their work). I’ve also used the per square foot formula but have since adopted a basic shoot cost around the $200 to $300 range depending on the distance I have to travel for the shoot. Usually I’m only shooting main living areas; foyer, livingroom, family room, kitchen/dining room, and master bedroom at different angles. I’ll throw in the theater room if they have one. Using this formula, it doesn’t matter how big or little the home is. The seller/agent gets these main living areas for a set price. I add on pole mounted aerials, twilight shots of the exterior, and may include some general neighborhood features (parks, etc.). All this being said, if you were to schedule one photo shoot per day for five days each week at $250 (average), you’re making a mere $65,250. But, that’s not a bad income for doing something you love to do. Lastly, check out ActiveRain.com and search photography. I was impressed to find some talent over there and some insight on shooting exteriors; look for a fellow in Texas – his name I think is Clark Coots. Here is a shameless plug: if you decide you’d like to join AR, please mention me as the referral source; iPhotoHomes.
    Thanks for this wonderful blog and great community.

  • “I would compare what Obeo or Circle Pix charges and go from there (keep in mind these rank amatuers are the “in and out” types that will finish a job without extra lighting in about 30 minutes – and it shows in their work).”

    Hey! I resemble that!!!

    No, really — it doesn’t make sense for me to put a ton of time into shooting a tour, because I’m only making around $35 per house. (drive time + shooting + post-processing + uploading = underpaid @ $35 per house)

    Nice thing is, I’m usually shooting 4-6 homes per day.

  • @360House,

    Given your statement of 4-6 houses per day at $35/ house, I am assuming a constant average of 5 houses per day. 5 days a week, 52 weeks a year, that comes to $45,500/ year. After taxes and such, that hardly seems a fitting income for all the time you are putting in…

  • Chester

    I get to work from home, shoot only 3-4 hours per day, post-process for only 1-2 hours per day, and the best part is that someone else is doing the selling, marketing and website maintenance for me.

    Getting a repeat base of customers on my own in a market that is owned by Circlepix/obeo would be difficult.

    Your estimate for my yearly pay is high, but I’m not looking to get rich doing this. I’ll take this instead of sitting in an office 40+ hrs per week, thankyouverymuch.

  • You really need to charge what you are worth and not base it on what someone else is getting paid for a totally different service. Photographers starting out will find it difficult to command the type of money a seasoned photographer gets. This is not only because of the skill and quality of the product the seasoned photographer produces, but you must also factor in the client base they have built up over time.
    As a REALTOR, I won’t pay a photographer 1% of my gross proceeds if I can get acceptable product for less. On the other hand, if it costs me more than 1% of my gross proceeds to get the quality photographs that will get the house sold, then I must pay up. I don’t get paid until the home sells.
    Once you prove your worth to me, it will be difficult for me to take a chance on the next photographer who offers me the same service for less. At this point, you have become the seasoned photographer.

  • @Lee – You raise good points. As much as anything my pricing formula is intended to help real estate photographers find a lower bound for their pricing. I know photographers that are charging $100 to photograph the same home that it costs $130 to get the furnace maintained. This means that photographers are loosing money big time!

  • I think this is sound rationale to use to calculate travel and labor costs. But why would you use a 1.7 multiplier when you say you are going to put in 4 times as much work as the furnace guy (2 hours vs. 30 minutes)? Sure, the travel is the same, but this multiplier does not consider the differing marketing time requirements (phone book for the furnace guy, personal visits, discussions, delivery of material, and picking out shots with the real estate person or homeowner/client) or post-shoot presentation work, including post processing, for the photographer. So far, I do very little real estate photography but I charge $300 for a three hour, three outfit portrait shoot, done at my studio (no travel, no dragging equipment, no resulting extra wear and tear on my equipment and no need of a special vehicle, such as a van). All prints, books, retouching, etc. are added to this price. And these usually do not generate income for anyone but me — for instance, they are not the driving force for a commission of thousands of dollars like good real estate photography can be! I have never charged less than $500 for a finished set of prop shots. It is the same as portraiture to me: if it is not worth that, or for very inexpensive homes (are there any?) then go for it with your RebelXt. But it won’t look anything like what I do. As the great John Todman said, “You get what you pay for and often substantially less.”

  • I would usually charge like this.
    I specialize in wedding photography and I charge $150-$200 an hour. With Real Estate I charge half of my hourly rate which is roughly $75 an hour because I don’t have to deal with a bunch of annoying people. It’s just me and the peacefulness of the House. That 75 is for my pocket. I then charge $5 per room and another $75.00 for editing and all the images on CD; hi-res and web images. So for a basic 3 bed 2 bath, kitchen, living, dining, formal living and dining and the exterior front and rear of the House would be at roughly $210.00

  • I thought I would throw out my pricing structure and get some feedback. I have two basic “packages” that I offer: one is photography only – I charge $50/hr shooting and anywhere from $75-150 for post-production prints on CD (price increases with homes list price).

    The second package includes a bit more – I do the photography, design a postcard/flier layout (normally MUCH more appealing than what they usually get – i’m a graphic designer at heart), and include 100 prints on 100lb glossy paper (I have a way of getting prints for cheaper than most do so a good chunk of profit comes from this). I charge $1 for each print over that 100. For this I charge anywhere from $250 to to $500 depending on list price. They can buy the prints on CD for an additional $50 as well.

    Thats basically it. I have found packaging the three services together for a pretty cheap price works great. Any input or advice???

  • My pricing structure is a bit different from everyone’s and is based on the sq.ft. of the home, varying from $65-$500. I offer brochure and/or virtual tour with all my shoots. With the current condition of the real estate market, your average Realtor can/will only pay so much.

    Additional real estate marketing services include: postcards, websites, posting to RE listing sites, e-flyers, text flyers, social networking, blogging, and others.

    I also offer a $25 credit for new client referrals, this has really helped to get both repeat business and new clients. A WIN WIN for everyone.

  • I am so happy to find a knowledgable blog about Real Estate Photography! I am working on starting up a business in northern Colorado and I’m still figuring out all of the important details to get everything going. Would anyone be willing to give me some advice on starting up the business?

  • I guess everyone charges different in terms of where the money is devided. Some people charge less for photography and more for editing, some people more for photography and less for editing. I was raised with a fine art perspective that I know what the shot looks like before I touch the button so I don’t do a lot of after editing, but I do charge more for my photo work because I feel I’m getting a fair amount for what my time, work, effort, education, equipment, blood sweat and tears over the past twelve years is worth. I charge 50.00 a rm. 75.00 for pano. 5.00ea. for detail shot so I come out of a 5,000 sq. ft home with about $6-700.00 on a good day. Now I’m looking to get on the preferred list of a certain Co. and they’re wanting me to get my rates to 1/4 of that but bring lots more work. Now I know it’s the nature of the beast but what’s a broke ass to do?

  • P.S Dale your work is amazing!!

  • Robert, is the Pano fee in addition to the rm fee or in place of it. ie do you charge $125 for a pano of a room or is it just 75$ for the room done in a pano?

  • I do real estate photography in Manhattan and wanted to mention my pricing to get some feedback on whether people think I am over or under-charging…I typically shoot anything from studio to 5-bedroom luxury apartments in the millions of dollars. But I do not charge based on the price of the apartment.

    My rate is $75 for 6 photos, and $25 for each additional photograph. This also includes views, building amenities, exteriors, neighborhood shots, etc.

    So far I have not had any complaints regarding my pricing from other brokers. And please feel free to check out my website to see the quality of my work. Any feedback would be greatly appreciated!

    Thanks!

    Donna

  • Just found this site to help with determining my rates. I was with a company that paid me, per their determination, on 3 levels. condos/twnhomes/apts for $250, under $1,000,000 for $400, and Overs for $600. This was for web size and print photos, web slide show and for overs a DVD and suited me fine while it lasted. Now, I’m not sue what to charge. I have set up a provisional price list and would love some feed back. I am working out of Charleston,SC and have come up with – $100-$150 for C.T.&A., $150-$200 for under, and $250-$500 for overs. i just don’t know. I don’t want to over-charge, but certainly want it to be worth my while. Comments would be greatly appreciated. Thanks, Whitney

  • A friend (Rebecca), who does wedding and animal photography, recently was contacted by a business dealing with REO’s. Since she was busy at the time she referred the job to Bob. Bob was a broker at one time and did all his own photography for his listings, so he has the expertise in both real estate and photography. Rebecca, was originally contacted because she was listed as a photographer in the area where the listing occurred, (no personal relationship) has no real estate expertise. My question is . .
    Rebecca asked for a 30% referral fee for each of the jobs Bob got after the first shoot. The firm is in Southern California and the homes to be photographed are in Northern Calif. The firm will only pay a maximum of $200 for REO’s. Is the 30% fee reasonable for all shoots with this firm? If not, what terms would be reasonable. Thanks for help with this issue.

  • @Nancy- Here is my shot at answering your question:
    In my experience there is no standard convention for referral fees for work real estate photography. I think the reason is because the per shoot profit margin on real estate shoots is small compared to say the profit margin on a real estate transaction where a 30% per transaction referral fee is standard.

    I have to say I’m conflicted about the whole referral for dollars concept when the profit margins on photography are so small. I make a lot of referrals every month with no expectation of reimbursement. I look at referrals as sending good will out into the universe. What happens is the more good will you send out into the universe the more good will the universe sends your way. And what you’ll find is that you don’t always get paid in dollars. I say, give you referral to Bob and wish him good luck… He may refer a wedding shoot to you. You will probably make more on one wedding he refers to you than 5 or 10 home shoots.

  • Now, does your price include usage fee? Do they get the photo for an undetermined amount of time for just that price?

  • Scott, They are allowed to use the photos for the duration of the listing. You need to explain this in a written handout because agents do not have a clue about usage… if you don’t tell them, they will assume that they own the photos and give them to owners etc.

  • I have a small photography business trying to advance and make a little more money doing real estate HDR images and panoramic photos. I think it really depends on the place you are… ALOT of places think they are a photographer because they bought a DSLR at best buy on sale, and just use auto settings, so you will get alot of people who just try to do it themselves. I charge 30$ a house with editing, then 10$ per image that they chose with a copyright contract giving over advertising rights, and I keeping the full rights.

    you gotta start somewhere… alot of people are NOT going to pay ridicoulous fee’s.

    pick out a day your not doing anything and go shoot houses instead… yea its alot of work, but it builds a client base, and more of a portfolio so why not? if its your passion, its should be something you crave to do anyway :)

    just a thought <3
    Janelle.

  • […] Larry Lohrman once opined that you could estimate the fair value of real estate photography by pegging it to the cost of a furnace inspection, multiplied by 1.7. I thought this was wacky as hell when I first read it, but it actually works pretty good. While you’re finding out the cost of furnace inspections, check into window washing, too. What do they charge? How about the cleaning service? Landscape/lawn care guy? Termite inspector? You need to know what the typical expenditures are that your clients are making, and you need to know where you fit in terms of value. I can tell you, I was shocked to find out what the window washers charge around here, and it emboldened me to raise my rates. I mean no disrespect to the window washing crew, but dammit, my overhead is a little higher than theirs is! […]

  • Question for all the experienced guys in this field, supose you get get an assigment to shot a home for a realtor
    after both parties agree, when is the right time to collect ffor your service ? is it between the same day, a week
    after or when ? what is the usual ? and How ? check, cash, or credit card ? I would hate to get a surprise, and be told “you will get your check in two weeks ” so what will be the proper way to establish that situation ? in summary, what works better ? thank you in advance for your kind answer Abe

  • @Abe- I suggest that you ask for payment up front either a check when the Realtor meets you at the home to let you in or via credit card online when they place the order.

    Paying up front is a well established convention for ALL home inspectors I’ve ever hired and there is a reason, if you don’t there can be a bunch of reasons you may not get paid. Even home inspectors that we have used for years and have done literally 100s of inspections for want their money up front. It’s just good business.

  • I find it’s difficult to demand payment up front. Especially when you’re new in the business. They havent seen the product so are reluctant to pay upfront. I’ve just done my first couple of paid photo shoots this week and used paypal to create invoices. Seems to be a pretty easy system to use. You do pay Paypal a small fee though.

  • I’m exploring this forum cause I love looking at houses and am appalled at the lack of quality of the pics. I really enjoy photography and have the time and interest to develop required skills without having to make anything from it…for now. So…why are realtors the clients? They seem to be cheap, lousy photogs, and are approached by zillions of newbies like me to do the work for little to nothing. On the other hand, it’s really easy to figure out who owns a home that is for sale and, at a minimum, shoot them a postcard suggesting they might be better served working with someone who specializes in glamor shots of homes. Some will be interested and a good website might be the hook to get the conversation started. My thought is anyone who is selling needs to move the property sooner rather than later and should be willing to pay $200-300 for a quality set of pics that can sell the house. Opinions please!!

  • Interesting thought Mike. Personally I had never thought of this approach because I’m a Realtor too and don’t think it would be appropriate to approach another agents clients. If you convince the seller that your pictures will help sell the home, they will pressure their agent to hire a photographer.

  • @Mike- You have to be careful marketing home owners directly because in the long run your customers will be agents and you don’t want to get all the agents in your area pissed off at you. I talked to many that have tried marketing directly to home owners and everyone seems to give it up in the long run. The effective approach is to win over the top agents in your area because they can have 30 to 50 listings a year or more.

  • Intersting dialog. I know what my overhead for the year is (based on last years expendures) or you could use your budget. I figure that I only shoot 20% of the hours I work (80% to “other” business activities). Therefore, I know that for each hour that I work I my overhead is about $31.00 / hour. I add what I think my time is worth ($60.00 / hour – and considering SE Tax, and other benefits that actually comes out to about $45.00 / hr). I figure about one 1 hour post processing and posting to my website for delivery. I deliver 15 – 20 images in high res (for printing on flyers / postcards) and low res for web / MLS posting. If they are to be run as an advertisment in a magazine I charge more.
    Typically if I’m using only strobes I can complete a house in about 2 hours inside and outside. If I’m doing a house that requires me to use portable flash on light stands or other time consuming set-ups I’ll double the time gestumate.
    Real Estate agents are use to paying for services such as home inspectors, well inspections, enviromental inspections, MLS services, etc. in advance. I require payment at the time services are rendered, i.e. when I show up to do the photos. We get all the “paperwork” out of the way including payment.
    So, what this means is that a 2 hour on site job goes for about $275.00 for 15 – 20 pictures in high & low res downloadable from my website. Yes, I do turn down work if the price is below what I expect. I don’t work on spec or wait till the property is sold for payment. Other professionals that RE Agents contract with expect payment and so do I.

  • Okay, being a Realtor for several years, i’ll clear up what everyone thinks Realtors make.

    That commission, usually around 4-5% now is actually divided 4 ways – it’s split in half between the buyer and seller’s brokers, then the broker splits it with the agent depending on the size of the agent’s split which can be anywhere from 48% to 80%. Then out of those commissions they pay E&O insurance, Local MLS Dues, State MLS dues, National MLS dues, they now have to update their education in many states which means more fees, most advertising and websites and well just about all their phone and technology is out of pocket, health insurance… all out of pocket. They will usually lease a car because that helps with tax write offs after the gov’t takes their HUGE chunk out of their teeny checks. Trust me, unless they are married and have a second income, in this market, most aren’t making all millions – 2% usually do most of the business!

    So if they complain about all the fees- that’s why! And guess what! They don’t get paid unless the house sells! If it doesn’t it’s pretty much charity work! lol

  • Your commissions are off base.

    There are four parties to each real estate transaction. Listing agent, listing agent’s broker, buyer’s agent, buyer’s agent broker.

    Divide the gross commission by four before you start your calculations.

    Also… each real estate office has “desk fees” that vary from 1% – 5% of the gross commission. Desk fees account for payments to National chains, use of telephone, office equipment, etc.

    Also keep in mind that we only get paid when the home sells. It could take months… so any money paid out for a listing would be a loss, if the home doesn’t sell, or expires and another agency picks up the listing.

    Rebecca

  • “Divide the gross commission by four before you start your calculations.”

    I’m not buying that. I don’t know of a single real estate brokerage that takes 50% of an agent’s commission on every transaction. And then a separate “desk fee?” Yikes! Time to find a new brokerage.

    Nowadays, the 5% – 6% commission is split between the listing agent and the selling agent. Sometimes it’s 3% to the listing agent and 2% to the selling agent depending on how the listing agent has worded the listing agreement. Then the agent’s brokerage will take a cut from the agent’s commission. For some brokerages this is a fixed percentage for every listing. 15% for example. If your brokerage is taking half of every single transaction then you are being ripped off in a big way. Seriously. It’d be cheaper to start your own brokerage.

    Other brokerages will take half of the agent’s commission until the agent has paid their “desk fee” for the year and then the agent gets to keep their full commission on all remaining transactions. For example, Windermere’s desk fee is about $25,000 a year. They take half of your commission on every transaction until you’ve paid them that amount for the year. Once you’ve paid your “split” then you keep 100% of your commissions until a new year begins.

    Some brokerages will take a percentage of every commission and then charge a separate “desk fee” but it’s usually only a few hundred bucks a year and it’s usually the less successful brokerages that do this because most of their agent’s aren’t doing enough business to take a desk fee out of their commission.

    So on a $500,000 home a listing agent might get $15,000 in gross commission (3%). Then the brokerage takes their cut: maybe $1,500 (if they’re taking 10%) or $7,500 (if they’re taking half), leaving the agent with $7,500 to $13,500. For our calculations let’s say $10,000. A decent real estate photographer costs $250 – $500. For our calculations let’s say $300.

    So hiring a decent real estate photographer will cost you 3% of your net commission on a single $500k sale. So is it worth it? I’m not going to comment, suffice it to say that an agent’s answer to this question says a whole lot about his/her business acumen….

  • Good information!

    The theory is probably quite different for apartment real estate…correct? How would you ballpark that? Or…say it was for a property management company dealing in apartment/townhomes? As rentals?

    My other question is on usage (off topic?)…if the later were true, when would be good for usage end? calendar year?

  • This was a really interesting article and one of the first in the search engines, kudos!

    I am just entering this market and found your article to be informative and provided a good base line for where I could start looking at pricing realistically but competitively. In my eyes, for the service I would be providing, $100 – $200 seems a little low but time will tell.

    Thanks for the great information and keep it up.

  • Whoaaa! All the formulas in the world regarding what YOU, or WE think it’s worth are useless unless we have an exclusive on our area. As long as there are folks out there who give their work away…they will set the standard with which us quality shooters will have to struggle with. I shoot in the Dallas/Fort Worth Metro area, and there are lots of so called photographers around pulling us down. Some will shoot any home, any size, anywhere for $50. I cashed in…put the word out that I’m out of that race. I placed a fee based on sq footage (directly related to time involved) plus mileage, and it dang sure’s not some of the figures I have seen here. YOU CAN NOT BASE YOUR FEE ON ANY FRACTION OF THE AGENT’S COMMISSION…where in the hell did that idea come from? Do you have a real estate license? Do you pay to advertise the properties?

    Hey…I’m all for getting the most I can for my work, but our fees are directly related to what the competition in our area dictates, and what the agents will pay. If we don’t like that we find another handle.

  • I agree with Phil. Unlike plumbers and electricians, who must be licensed and serve an apprenticeship, there is no bar to entry for real estate photography. In fact, the standards and the skill set to get started with real estate photography seem to be just about the lowest of any type of professional photography. I have a sneaking suspicion that the value of a professional photographer to the majority of real estate agents is less than that of the people who clean the house and wash the windows, that is, less than a service that uses the most basic kind of unskilled labor. However, it is usually the homeowner who pays for cleaning and washing the windows, as well as other maintenance and repairs of the house, in preparation for putting the house on the market. If those costs had to come out of the agent’s pocket, I would guess that many agents wouldn’t see much value in those services either. One more reason why it would be preferable for the homeowners in the US to foot some or all of the marketing costs for selling the home, as is customary in other countries.

  • “One more reason why it would be preferable for the homeowners in the US to foot some or all of the marketing costs for selling the home, as is customary in other countries.”

    A small number of my high end listing agent clients are now charging their clients a “listing set-up fee” of $500 to $1,000. This covers the initial photography and basic print flyer costs for the agent and is refundable at closing. If the home owners aren’t willing to commit to the fee it’s usually a pretty good indication that they’re not fully committed to selling their house.

    In the last month I have asked two different home owners both putting multi-million dollar homes on the market
    where they were moving to and each replied “Oh, not sure really. We thought we’d just list our house and see if it sells….”

    I’ll let you guys take a wild guess if their homes were priced realistically or not…..

  • What an awesome websit. Great discussion on pricing. With all due respect, in reference to setting the price to the commision I think many of you are missing the point. I think Dale was trying to show a realtor that his “new charge theory” is very reasonable, just 1 percent of the total commission. If you would rather, his calulation is .0006% of the listing price. Either way, that seems a reasonable price to charge no matter how you calculate it.

  • Can I simply say what a comfort to find somebody that really understands what they’re talking about online. You actually realize how to bring a problem to light and make it important. More and more people need to read this and understand this side of your story. It’s surprising you are not more popular since you definitely possess the gift.

  • The million dollar question, “How Much to Charge”
    After five years of RE Photography and still making cost changes…………….I have to take into consideration my investment of cameras I have 3 that I use ,lens,lighting, software,computers,camera equipment and last but not least my ” VALVE”.
    • I use a cost per square ft of .12cts / condo,Townhouse approx. 2000 sqft $240.00 and so one. The Realtor gets 30 HDR photos resized for web and print, my processing time on something like this is about 60min. my time at the house maybe 60min. usually a 2 hr turn around depending on travel /distance from start to finish back home and ready to process. I hope this helps Great Luck all.
    remember Realtors are cheappies and if they want you they will pay……….You better be REALLY GREAT at taking photos.

  • As much as I feel that I’m worth hundreds of dollars for my knowledge and experience, as well as the investment in equipment and marketing, agents in my area simply will NOT pay much for property photos. I speak from the position of 20 years in the business of real estate marketing. I’ve seen what passes for photography on the local MLS, even for $1M+ homes. Most agents in my area find the photos they take on their iPhones acceptable. I’ve played a great deal with price and packages and find that my market will bear about $75 for just about any priced home. Once a certain level of adequate quality is achieved, my market does not recognize better nor would my market pay for it. I would love to raise my prices to reflect what I feel the service is actually worth, but all I’d have is my pride… certainly no paid jobs.

  • @Patrick- My point in this post is what do other service people that have to come to a home and spend a similar amount of time charge in your area? I used furnace maintenance because they have to show up spend an hour or so doing their thing. Check to see how you compare to other service people. Is there really service people that will come to you home for an hour that only charge $45 or $75? I can’t imagine there are. Are you tracking what it costs you to show up at a property? and what hourly rate you are getting? Are you sure you are recovering expenses?

    I just can’t believe you are covering expenses at $45 and $75 per shoot?

  • I was wondering if anyone charges a mileage charge for the non-local shoots, and how much

  • @Neal- Yes, absolutely most people have a well defined area in which their standard charge applies and then for job outside that area they charge an extra mileage fee. What the milage fee is should be based on your vehicle costs and driving time. Make sure you are recovering your vehicle costs and your and personal time costs.

  • Agents’ commisions are irrelevant, and differ greatly by area and by reputation of the agent.

    You need to analyze your time, tools and materials, decide what price you need to charge to make the money you need (or want to make it worthwhile) and use that to determine your pricing. If you can’t make the numbers work based on that, then you can’t shoot real estate for a living. Maybe as a hobby, or a weekend job, but not as a living.

    If you give the appearance that you’ll work for cheap, you will be working for cheap. If you are matter-of-fact about your business pricing and practices, and deliver a solid product, you can develop a good set of clients. If you don’t ask for payment up front, expect to get stiffed on some jobs, or to spend a lot of time chasing down payments.

    Real estate inspectors don’t deliver the report w/o payment up front. Very few, if any, service companies will send a bill after the work has been performed. Some houses won’t sell, and under no circumstances should you work with that as a contingency for receiving payment for your work – the work that you have already done, and delivered the product for.

    Get a Square device for your iPhone, or some such service, so you can take credit card payment on the spot, since everyone “forgot their checkbook”.

  • @Alison- All great advice! You sound like you’ve done business with real estate agents before;)

  • @Alison, I completely agree with the square device. It makes it so easy to take payment during the shoot and emails a receipt too. Definitely worth the service fee.

  • @Alison. You’re right – everyone “Forgets” their checkbook. Square is a great tool, but, since they keep a (small) percentage, I don’t offer it first. These are relatively small jobs, with expenses. Get the check, or cash, if possible. Offer Square if that’s what it takes.

    Also, several on this thread have questioned dealing primarily with Realtors. Good Realtors are out trying to get listings every day. Your basic homeowner has one house to sell. If you make the Realtor look good, every listing contract will be another call to you. Having agents calling daily with work is the way I want it – not me out beating the bushes for a homeowner who might be looking for pictures.

  • ok…this may have been answered before, but I have not seen it – my question related for pricing is: does anyone ever do a “monthly rate” for an agent or agency and, say, do up to x amount of listings for a set price? given set parameters, of course (up to x sq ft/property, up to x # of images/property and x mile radius from set area, etc)….and make exceptions (charge x amount extra for larger homes, x sq ft – y sq ft) if necessary? I have not yet done any RE photography, but for many of the reasons listed here in this discussion as well as others on the website it is something I REALLY want to get into, and as far as i know there are not any photographers who do it in my area (think rural and smaller towns). This question has been on my mind for a while, and I just wanted to toss it out there :)

    thanks SO much in advance!!

  • @Katie- I’ve never heard of anyone charging the way you describe. The reason is the demand for real estate photography is erratic and unpredictable. Agents have no idea when their next listing is or if they are going to even get another listing.

    You will need a backup income while you start a real estate photography business, particularly in a small rural town. Agents in small rural towns seem to be resistant to using real estate photography.

  • thanks Larry-I appreciate your feedback!

  • How about using a scale rate based on how many (maximum) pictures the agent can upload to their local MLS website?
    for example 8 or 15 or 24

    Thanks.

  • @Matt- The problem with varying the pricing based on the number of photos like you are doing (https://matt-fenimore-iamw.squarespace.com/pricing) is:
    1. Most of your overhead costs are your costs of showing up.
    2. To show up and take 1 photo my guess is you are making nothing.
    3. If you are going to show up you might as well take 15 photos… hardly different in your costs than takeing 1 photo
    You need to read: http://photographyforrealestate.net/2012/02/23/what-should-you-charge-for-real-estate-photography/
    and do the arithmetic for your expenses.

  • Seems that charging $10.00 per photo with a 20 photo minimum would be a simple, understandable way to go about it. Cut and dry…….

  • I like the idea of this and will check it out. I’ve been telling realtors, when asked about my price, how much an appraisal is. That usually quiets them if their response wasn’t initially favorable.

  • I’m an established photographer and I’m looking to expand my business into real estate. With my current customers, I send them to my Photoshelter website to see the finished work. When they want to download it, they have to “Add to Cart” and check out. Yes, I have expenses that way, but I build that into my pricing and I figure it’s worth giving up a bit to get paid and not have to have a “collections” department (that would be me, of course).

  • Hi. I’m new here.

    I love the idea of setting my price at a factor of another professional’s service. However, rather than basing it on the price an HVAC contractor sets, why not base it on the price a Realtor charges for a BPO (Broker Price Opinion)? If a full BPO (including driving to and touring the property) takes an hour to complete and deliver and a real estate shoot takes 2.5 hours to complete and deliver (on a good day!) then BPO x 2.5 feels like it’s in the ball park of fair price for our services, and something that we should be able to justify to Realtors wanting to hire us.

    Like I said, I’m new, so I’ll let you know how my plan works out :)

  • @Beau- My point about basing your price on some other professionals price is it’s a simple way of getting a feel for what other service people spending a similar amount of time and similar tasks are charging in your area. Realtors in the US don’t charge for pricing their homes… at least I’ve never heard of that. Appraisers who generally work for the bank that’s making the load charge the bank for a appraisal perhaps that’s what you mean.

  • Knowing what agents are likely to make on the sale of a listing is good information to have to evaluate what the market might bear. Given that, calculating the price you charge based on your costs, what you want to take home after taxes and your equipment budget is the only way you can make sure that you can survive at the price you set. Other have stated that starting with a low price and trying to raise it over time is extremely difficult. It’s better to start with a higher price and apply a “discount” to the invoice. The discount can be lessened over time much easier.

    My dilemma has been deciding whether to publish prices on my web site or to negotiate with each agent/agency. I am leaning towards a combination of both approaches by publishing set prices for a level of service to act as a starting point and putting in some text to let agents know that I will negotiate better rates for a minimum number of shoots per month (or rolling 30 day period). I wouldn’t apply the quantity pricing figure on the first shoot, but would include an increasing discount until the agreed on quantity was reached. I’ve been burned too many times in the past with promises of future work if I would give a healthy discount on the first order.

    I am finding that what’s harder than setting prices is convincing agents to use professional photography. The area I am in has two dominant brokers, RE/Max and Coldwell Banker. Both of them let the agents take the pictures of the listings and they are universally horrible. I’ll keep trying to get some business from them, but even their $1M+ listings look they were shot with camera phones and then the files were squeezed to 20kb each. I am going to spend more time calling on the smaller offices and independent agents. Hopefully, they will be more aggressive and are looking for an edge against their competition. Does anybody have any experience in this?

    If I can get in the area of $150 per home on average at 1-2 shoots per day, I should do ok. The cost of living where I am is pretty cheap compared to the greater Los Angeles area. Communities are spread out, but traffic is not a problem. I will list a travel charge for cities further away, but will discount it back for booking 2-3 shoots on the same day. I don’t want to do any more than 3 shoots in one day so I can process and deliver by the next day without staying up too late. I am also planning on offering services in a senior community where my mother lives. They have a high turnover of properties and I can add to my portfolio of community pictures each time I visit and offer them as a bonus. It’s 2-1/2 hours away, but I have a place to stay, mom feeds me (too much) and it’s always nice to visit. With good connections, I can book several full days in advance. I will have access to high speed internet and I can park my Mac Mini and a large monitor to process pictures. Doing production work on the laptop is too constrained.

    Thank you to the realtors that have chimed in. It is very helpful to hear from you.

  • I’ve been a professional photographer for 20 years and have made most of my income from weddings over the last 10 years. I have been transitioning into real estate after a family member, who is a realtor , hired me to do a 1.5m listing. Since it was my first real estate shoot, I charged $100, which I thought was fair at the time. She promised me she would send all her listings my way and she agreed to $30 a shoot no matter the size of the condo, house or mansion. I have learned the hard way , after she referred other realtors to me , that I need to collect the money up front or do not shoot. I worked with 4 different realtors who all forgot their checkbooks. They also kept forgetting to mail a check after weeks or months have gone by. I do not wish to chase after $40 payments with e-mails and phone messages. Not sure a good way to collect money from them in a professional way. Also, how does everyone else contact other realtors to offer photography services ? I have tried through LinkedIn, mailed flyers to the managers of real estate brokers, and e-mails to individual realtors. What is the best way to draw interest? Any advice is appreciated.

  • To anyone who ever actually scrolls all the way down through 77+ responses and get’s to mine. I will start by saying I did not read all the previous responses, so I apologize if I’m repeating what someone else has already said. That being said, into the meat…

    I have two MAJOR problems with the calculation given. First and foremost, almost every home repair man that comes to “service” a piece of equipment, be it heater, plumbing, pool, whatever, EXPECTS and plans on getting additional work out of it. Either because they find something or (in the case of shady places) make something that needs work, or because they are your regular provider they know that WHEN something goes wrong, they are the ones you call. So right there you need to take the whole repair man idea off the table. Which brings me to my second point…

    Making a sustainable business at $200 per house just doesn’t add up. My second major complaint is the hourly rate of service for professional photographers in other industries, wedding, portrait, marketing, hell even stock photos, make 2 to 3 times as much per hour as a real estate photographer!!!! What is wrong with this picture? So lets say that a wedding photographer (I know several personally) makes $3000 for a basic wedding. Lets assume he uses an assistance who gets paid $1000 (probably a bit high, but hey were being conservative here). So of the $2000 the photographer has left, assuming he uses a fairly standard 60-75% of income = payroll, insurance, etc. and pays that to himself, leaving the other 25-40% for the business overhead, company taxes, equipment, studio, insurance, travel, etc. The photographer takes home (pre-tax income) $1200 for about 8 hours of on-site work, maybe another 2-4 in post process so 12 hours of work. That is conservatively $100 an hour to the photographer, after everything is said and done.
    Taking that $100/hr +$33 overhead (in line with at least one post I saw and sticks to the 75% income listed above) assuming 2 hours on site plus another hour in travel and processing, that is $400! And again I’m being conservative here.

    Even looking at stock photography, which can be sold repeatedly though major clearing houses such as Getty Images you can easily pay $300 for a decent quality (1000×800 pixel) royalty free image (meaning unlimited use however you want, basically the same thing we are providing to photographers without the customization). So take that $300 per image, take out a 50% cut for the clearing house takes (it’s actually more but this difference makes up for the fact that no one else will ever be able to buy the image you produce for a real estate agent) you have $150 per image. A fair price compared to similar services from portrait photographers. Now lets say you take the MLS maximum, and highly recommended 30 images… bet yet, cut that in half, 15 images. 15x$150 = $2250 per house! Yup real estate photographers are getting hosed!

    Lets look at this another way. You charge $200 a house right? Great, lets say you put aside 25% for expenses, corporate taxes, insurance, what have you. $150 remains. That is pre-incometax but that’s ok I’ll get there. So lets say you want to make a respectable take home pay equal to a teacher (my wife has a masters in biology and teaches special needs children in a fairly well off county in Virginia) that equals $45,000 per year (also pre-tax). To make that much in real estate photography given the numbers above, you are looking at photographing 300 houses a year. That is one house a day every day, no vacation, no bad weather, no winter doldrums and spring peaks. I’d kill myself just trying to make what my wife does and I wouldn’t have the benefit of mostly employee paid health insurance insurance, or summers and other holidays off, a pension/retirement program. In reality I’d need to make more like $50,000 just to cover the health insurance premiums and retirement services. Add in time off and variable income I’d need more like $60,000 which equals a staggering 400 houses a year!!!! If you do the math, and look at it from a long term business standpoint, clearly the $200 a hour range won’t work. If I photograph 180 (one every other day on average) to make the same $60,000 (take home) I need to charge $444.44 per shoot. I still think this is too low, but sufficient to keep a business, at least a start-up running… for now.

    So guess what, I’m going to keep my day job (with health insurance, retirement, vacation, etc) and try and photograph houses occasionally at a rate that is worth my time and quality of the product I produce. If realtors won’t pay it, well then they can find someone else, who is fresh to the market, who is willing to loose money/their sole and I wish the realtors the best of luck and hope they both wise up to the cost of doing business. If realtors will pay my fee and I can routinely book enough houses to make it a steady income maybe I’ll quit my day job.

  • Robert, now you can see why many people here and on the Flicker group are critical of photographers that only charge $35-$75 per shoot. Based on your simplified math, they are better off staying home and collecting foods stamps. If you carefully factored in all of the expenses of running a business, investing in equipment to stay current, repairs, ad nausem, they would find that working the counter at a fast food joint would be more economic and the hours would be shorter.

    Shooting low to middle priced properties is a tough way to earn a living but, it is a good way to learn the techniques and build a portfolio if you plan to bootstrap into shooting higher end residential and commercial properties. Good RE agents are also looking to move up to higher end properties. Establishing relationships with RE agents that are aggressive and working towards selling 6 homes a year at $8m each instead of 48 homes at $200k each will create a bond and the sense of a team between you and the agent bringing your pay level up as well. There is a lot of frog kissing, but a couple of payoffs will wash out the bad taste. I would be very surprised if any of the members here jumped straight into multi-million dollar homes. It could happen…. Anybody?

    The stock image example takes a lot for granted. $150/image gross x 15 images/day = $2250/house has a bunch of holes. I sell stock images, but in this market I am not getting $150/image. The competition is pretty stiff and I have yet to get tied into an agency that buys from me on a consistent basis. I know a couple of people that bring in about $60K/year on stock images and I would love to get to that point.

    I’m throwing myself into RE photography with the plan of going upscale as fast as I can. I will still be shooting $150-$200 gigs until I get to the point where I really don’t need the money. In the mean time, I am learning how streamline my workflow while maintaining a set quality level and my editing/retouching skills are getting better quickly. I won’t be in the mail room for long. I’ll get that corner office on the executive floor.

  • Interesting approach to charging and comparisson to furnace repair. If you’re interested I’ve been working on a formula myself. Always welcome some toughts on it.
    http://www.davorpavlic.com/how-to-charge-for-your-photography-formula/#.Ubo-zvk3D-Y

  • Robert Glover — to paraphrase what a professor once wrote on a paper I handed in, “You are as wrong as it is possible to be in a paper of this length.”
    He went on to give me a “C” because, he said, I couldn’t be expected to know the things I was wrong about, and based on the content of the class, I could be forgiven for the premises I made in my paper.

    Your post reminded me of that experience. You have some idea of the CODB for photography, but you clearly have no idea of the reality of shooting real estate day to day. I can assure you that there are many photographers making upwards of 6 figure net (not gross) incomes shooting nothing but real estate. And they’re taking vacations, buying health insurance, and doing the things they love to do. I used to be one of them. These days I still shoot a few listings nearly every month. $200 is a low-to-average rate in most urban areas. Suburban and rural areas will dictate a lower rate, but of course the cost of living out there is WAY less.

    A skilled interiors photographer with decent marketing acumen can build a clientele within 2 years that will support an average of 2 shoots per day, 5 days a week. To some extent it’s seasonal (just like weddings) so you can plan on April and September being hella busy, and December being almost completely dead (that’s my market cycle, anyway). So of course, some days it’s 3 shoots (or more) and some days it’s one, or none. It averages out.

    So let’s do that math: 10 shoots per week, 4 weeks per month = 40 shoots per month, x $200 = $8000/month gross. That’s $96,000/year gross. You can apply whatever CODB you like but most people I know could get by on that figure.

    And here’s the best part: 2 shoots a day is basically part-time work. On average (and again, this is for an urban market) a “Shoot” takes about 3 hours, counting travel to and from, time on site, and time in post-production. That still leaves 2 hours a day for administrative stuff like invoicing, delivery, maintenance, Facebook, etc. etc. And STILL that’s only an 8-hour day, which would leave someone like me bored to tears (I like what I do, so 10-hour days are pretty much fine with me).

    Again, these are all averages, so you bet some days are damn hard while others are (literally) a walk in the park. But I can tell you that there are an awful lot of photographers who shoot 3, 4 and 5 listings a day on a regular basis. Some of them (like me) charge considerably more than $200/shoot, too.

    I can also tell you that the median income for professional photographers across the board is something like $40K per year. So I think my real estate photography friends are doing pretty well. Most of the wedding photographers I know are happy to shoot maybe 15 or 20 weddings a year, which taking your fee of $3000 equals only $60,000. Barely a living wage, where I live.

  • Well said Scott!

  • I think that each market is different. I’m a real estate agent as well and the discussion of commissions is moot for a couple of reasons: First, the brokerage models vary dramatically from area to area. Some areas (like mine) are still stuck in the 50:50 split mode with the brokerage. A few alternatives exist, but not many. Other areas not so much. Sometimes agents pay additional fees for leads from the office. There are also referral fees. I’ve had situations where referral fees took out almost 40% BEFORE my brokerage took their cut. I think it was about $6k on a $1 million sale that I was looking to gross from a sale that had taken months of my time. There is always a plethora of other marketing costs as well. So you can’t make too many assumptions.

    Having said that, I will add that some agents, including many top producers, are notoriously cheap. I had a choice: learn how to do photography the right way OR outsource it. Since I was listing at the low end, I thought it would be cheaper to learn it myself. I was WRONG. And that’s what I try to impart to those who think they can dabble in photography “on the side”. For me it started a new career track, but that’s another story.

    What we are wrestling with in our area is the value of “good enough”. We have a couple of big companies that have helicoptered in and are offering all sorts of goodies for peanuts. I’m assuming these models are flush with VC so that they don’t have to turn a profit – yet. I’m also assuming that once they get they get enough “addicts” and public demand for at least “semi-professional” photography forces agents to open their wallets, the price will be jacked up. The model also appears to be based on exploiting photographer wanna-be’s with what amounts to minimum wage per shoot or worse. The question is how to you overcome the “good enough” mentality in order for a business model that isn’t a hobby or even profitable to trump what you offer.

    In that regard Ken and Scott are correct. You won’t make great money in the beginning, but you can as time goes on. Just be careful not to undersell yourself in the beginning.

  • Scott Hargis – that was brilliant!

  • Scott:

    Well said. I try to follow your methods in lighting interiors, and now your approach to the business! I started my business about one year ago shooting anything and everything at $150 per. During the year I have improved my techniques, post processing, and delivery. I am up to $190.00 as a minimum shoot today and plan to be at $200.00 plus by the end of the year. I attack the business from both ends, moving the price higher, and cutting my expense/time. So far it is working but it takes a lot of sales/marketing time to bring in new clients. If I get overloaded, I plan to bring on a couple of “contract” photographers, teach them the techniques and take 20% off each shoot for the business.

    Loved your book and keep up the good work.